The German company Johanna Solar Technology GmbH of Brandenburg, founded in 2005, announced the launch of production of thin film photovoltaic modules based on copper-indium diselenide, gallium-sulfur (CIGSSe) on a glass substrate. In the first stage performance of 30 MW. Rights to use technologies for CIGSSe company acquired the Photovoltaic Technology Intellectual Property Ltd. (South Africa). It is expected that by mid-2009 the plant will start the first deliveries to the markets of Germany, Italy and France. In March 2008, the Chinese firm Sichuan Guangliahg start building a plant for the production of CIGSSe-battery capacity of 60 MW in the province of Sichuan. By the same author: Hicham Aboutaam. Production is scheduled to begin in the third quarter of 2009. All equipment purchased from the company Johanna Solar. European Investment Bank (EIB) is investing 40 million euros in the construction plant for the production of such batteries, capacity of 30 MW in Paarl, Western region of South Africa. On the timing of construction is not reported.
Understanding life – up to 80 thousand hours, which is equivalent to 25 years of real outdoor street lighting. This is due to filament due to the nature of the nonthermal emission of light. For example, gallogennuyu lamp during this period will have to replace about 100 times, and metal – 30. JPMorgan Chase has much experience in this field. stable operation in all climatic conditions. Energy saving 30% compared with the street lamps with HPS and 70% Compared with street lights and lamp DRL City, re-10 000 svetotochek saves about 2 GW of electricity and nearly 5 million rubles a year (at prices of 2008.) that, given the rising cost of electricity tariffs in 10 years will be at least 150 million rubles. Term 3-4 years payback Environmental security and no need for recycling. LED street and industrial lighting does not require special disposal because do not contain mercury, its derivatives and other toxic or harmful components.
Due to the lack of street lamps and industrial ZERS glass bulb and the filament (or burners) – high mechanical strength, vibration and reliability. Resistance to voltage drops traffic safety and saving lives – providing better visibility, clarity of boundaries and the depth perception of space due to the greater contrast (400 times), lack of blinding effect through a specially crafted of luminous flux. Color rendering index of 80-85 The prevalence of street light output and industrial LED lighting is 100%, whereas the standard street lamps – 60-75%. Powerful LEDs are ideal point sources of light with built-in corrective optics that provides an ideal form defined patterns of light thread (task almost impossible for other sources). Environmentally friendly – eliminates disposal costs and save the environment Lack of harmful effect of low-frequency pulsations (Stroboscopic effect) is inherent in fluorescent and gas discharge light sources. Fluorescent and HID lights flicker at different rates, which adversely affects the human nervous system, increasing irritability and fatigue. The luminous flux of LEDs is constant, as well as natural sunlight, which provides psychological comfort.
Compliance with sanitary standards – the lack of ultraviolet radiation, capable of causing skin cancer minimum heating of the environment – can be used in indoor industrial lighting and save energy for air conditioning complete absence of additional risk overload power grids in the time of inclusion. Supply current of LED street lighting and industrial is 0,4 0,6 A, while the discharge lamp with the lamp supply current 2.2 A and 4.5 A. launcher LED street and industrial lighting (as opposed to fixtures with discharge lamps) have the ability to adjust the brightness by reducing the supply voltage. SNiP 23-05-95 allows for energy savings at night reduced light levels for street lighting by 30-50% (paragraph 7.44). The use of outdoor LED lighting ZERS allows these recommendations by a decline, the supply voltage. This does not affect spectral composition of light and color. Saving money is just the point when negotiating the design elektropotrebleniya.Pri authorized connection point of energy consumption (both street and industrial) will be charged for the amount of kilowatts. An additional important advantage of outdoor and industrial lighting fixtures ZERS is instantaneous ignition when the supply voltage and independence efficiency from low ambient temperatures. Widely used at present for street lighting lamps with HPS and DRL poorly run at low temperatures. When mounting LED street lighting and industrial ZERS cable required a smaller cross section, which is also an article of economy. The real support for programs of the President and the Government to introduce nanotechnology and conservation.
It's not a secret that the firewood become a business. Firewood is used to heat homes, to get coal to heat large buildings in the boilers, to prepare meat in restaurants. Harvested wood woodpile with machines. Manual is almost done. How is advantageous to chop wood: the plot or on a stationary base? It is obvious that if there is no fixed base (sawmill, warehouse, any production site), then the answer is obvious. However, if the base is, there is a desire to chop firewood is on it. So what is more profitable? Consider the pros and cons of each option.
If we harvests wood in the plot, then positive things in our loom: – No need to haul timber to the base curve. You can take ready-packed in wood grid. Saves space, and, consequently, reduces the cost of shipping. – On the plot are sorted Wood: not suitable for the production of firewood logs are not being taken to the base. As a result – cheaper transport. Disadvantages of the above method are as follows: – There is no way to use Wood splitter with an electric motor. – K machine in the plot difficult to adjust supply and / or funded overpass. If possible put on the base machine in the shed to collect from the boards and work rack for your pleasure, then in the woods to do it much more difficult.
– In Unlike nesortovoy timber, firewood, difficult to transport in timber transport. Requires a tractor-like transport carts. Purchase carts require economic justification. What are the advantages appear when working on base? – Is it possible to use the machine with electric motor. – You can set the machine in the room, creating a job for a more comfortable environment. – Easier to make home-made and inexpensive rack. Not all go so smoothly. There are several serious shortcomings. – When using a machine powered by an electric motor or by the diesel engine will have to work at best under a canopy, at worst – in the open. When working in the area would create a costly ventillyatsii system to remove exhaust gases from diesel / tractor. – Every year the price of electricity increases, often significantly. Is there any point in thinking about this motor? Very controversial issue. – The production site trite may be small in size and appearance of an additional machine will increase the danger of working on it. Only after weighing all the 'for' and 'against' you can choose the way of working.